Vertebrate fauna of SE Asia


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Text and photos by Nick Baker, unless otherwise credited.
Copyright ゥ Ecology Asia 2023






Primates of  Southeast Asia

Worldwide there are more than 450 species of primate. In Southeast Asia, as of 2016, there are 98 species recognised, comprising 19 species of prosimian (represented in the region by Lorises and Tarsiers), 57 species of Old World Monkey (including macaques, and colobines such as lutungs, surilis, doucs and others), 18 species of gibbon and 4 great apes (including humans).  In evolutionary terms, prosimians are considered to represent ancient lineages of primate, and great apes the most advanced.  Ecologically, primates play an important role as seed dispersers in the region's forests.


Prosimians : Slow Lorises
8 species, all in SE Asia

  Species List:
Nycticebus bengalensis - Bengal Slow Loris
Nycticebus coucang - Sunda Slow Loris
Nycticebus javanicus - Javan Slow Loris
Nycticebus menagensis - Philippine Slow Loris
Nycticebus bancanus - Bangka Slow Loris
Nycticebus borneanus - Schwaner Mountains Slow Loris
Nycticebus kayan - Kayan River Slow Loris
Nycticebus pygmaeus - Pygmy Slow Loris

Conservation Links :  
IUCN / SSC Primate Specialist Group

Gibbon Conservation Alliance
Orang Utan Foundation International
Primate Watching

Nycticebus spp.

Prosimians : Tarsiers
11 species, all in SE Asia

Gursky's Spectral Tarsier
Tarsius spectrumgurskyae
  Species List:
Carlito syrichta - Philippine Tarsier
Cephalopachus bancanus - Western Tarsier
Tarsius tarsier - Selayar Tarsier
Tarsius fuscus- Makassar Tarsier
Tarsius dentatus - Dian's Tarsier
Tarsius pelengensis - Peleng Tarsier
Tarsius sangirensis - Great Sangihe Tarsier
Tarsius spectrumgurskyae - Gursky痴 Spectral Tarsier
Tarsius supriatnai - Jatna's Tarsier
Tarsius tumpara - Siau Island Tarsier
Tarsius pumilus - Sulawesi Mountain Tarsier
Tarsius lariang - Lariang Tarsier
Tarsius wallacei - Wallace's Tarsier

Old World Monkeys : Cercopithecines : Macaques (Macaca spp.)
SE Asia : 14 species (worldwide 23 species)

Stump-tailed Macaque
Macaca arctoides
  Assamese Macaque
Macaca assamensis
  Long-tailed Macaque
Macaca fascicularis 
Rhesus Macaque
Macaca mulatta 
Northern Pig-tailed Macaque
Macaca leonina  
    Other SE Asia species :
M. hecki - Heck's Macaque
M. maura - Moor Macaque
M. nigrescens - Gorontalo Macaque
M. ochreata - Booted Macaque
M. pagensis - Pagai Macaque
M. siberu - Siberut Macaque
M. tonkeana - Tonkean Macaque
Sunda Pig-tailed Macaque    Macaca nemestrina   Celebes Crested Macaque
Macaca nigra

Old World Monkeys : Colobines : Surilis (Presbytis spp.)
17 species, all in SE Asia

Javan Grizzled Langur
Presbytis comata 
  Raffles' Banded Langur
Presbytis femoralis  
  E. Sumatran Banded Langur
Presbytis percura  
Robinson's Banded Langur
Presbytis robinsoni  
Red Leaf Monkey
Presbytis rubicunda 
      Other SE Asia species :
P. bicolor - Black-and-white Langur
P. canicrus - Miller's Grizzled Langur
P. chrysomelas - Cross-marked Langur
P. frontata - White-fronted Langur
P. hosei - Hose's Langur
P. melalophos - Black-crested Sumatran Langur
P. mitrata - Mitred Langur
P. natunae - Natuna Islands Langur
P. potenziani - Pagai Langur
P. sabana - Sabah Grizzled Langur
P. siberu - Siberut Langur
White-thighed Surili
Presbytis siamensis 
  Black Sumatran Langur
Presbytis sumatranus
  Thomas's Leaf Monkey
Presbytis thomasi

Old World Monkeys : Colobines : Lutungs (Trachypithecus spp.)
SE Asia : 18 species (worldwide 20 species)

Javan Lutung
Trachypithecus auratus
  Silvered Langur
Trachypithecus cristatus
  Indochinese Silvered Langur
Trachypithecus germaini
Hatinh Langur
Trachypithecus hatinhensis
  Dusky Langur
Trachypithecus obscurus
    Other SE Asia species :
T. barbei - Tenasserim Langur
T. crepusculus - Indochinese Grey Langur
T. delacouri - Delacour's Langur
T. ebenus - Black Langur
T. francoisi - Francois' Langur
T. laotum - Laotian Langur
T. margarita - Annamese Langur
T. mauritius - West Javan Langur
T. phayrei - Phayre's Langur
T. pileatus - Capped Langur
T. popa - Popa Langur
T. shortridgei - Shortridge's Langur
Cat Ba Langur
Trachypithecus poliocephalus

Selangor Silvered Langur
T. selangorensis


Old World Monkeys : Odd-nosed colobines (Nasalis, Simias, Pygathrix, Rhinopithecus)
SE Asia : 7 species (worldwide 9 species)

      Other SE Asia species :
Pygathrix cinerea - Grey-shanked Douc
Pygathrix nemaeus - Red-shanked Douc
Rhinopithecus strykeri - Myanmar snub-nosed Monkey
Simias concolor - Pig-tailed Langur
Proboscis Monkey
Nasalis larvatus 
  Black-shanked Douc
Pygathrix nigripes
  Tonkin Snub-nosed Monkey
Rhinopithecus avunculus

Lesser Apes : Gibbons (Hooloc, Hylobates, Nomascus, Symphalangus)
SE Asia : 18 species (worldwide 21 species)

      Other SE Asia species :
Hoolock hoolock - Western Hoolock
Hoolock leuconedys - Eastern Hoolock
Hoolock tianxing - Gaoligong Hoolock

Hylobates abbotti - Abbott's Grey Gibbon
Hylobates agilis - Agile Gibbon
Hylobates albibarbus - Bornean White-bearded Gibbon
Hylobates klossii - Kloss's Gibbon
Hylobates muelleri - Mllers Gibbon

Nomascus annamensis - Northern Yellow-cheeked Gibbon
Nomascus concolor - Western Black Crested Gibbon
Nomascus leucogenys - Northern White-cheeked Gibbon
Nomascus nasutus - Eastern Black Crested Gibbon
Nomascus siki - Southern White-cheeked Gibbon
East Bornean Grey Gibbon
Hylobates funereus
  White-handed Gibbon
Hylobates lar
  Javan Gibbon
Hylobates moloch
Pileated Gibbon
Hylobates pileatus  
  Buff-cheeked Gibbon
Nomascus gabriellae
Symphalangus syndactylus

Great Apes : Hominids & Orang Utans (Homo, Pongo)
SE Asia : 4 species (worldwide 7 species)

    Other SE Asia species :
Pongo abelii - Sumatran Orang Utan
Pongo tapanuliensis - Tapanuli Orang Utan
Homo sapiens 
  Bornean Orang Utan
Pongo pygmaeus