Order : ARTIODACTYLA
Family : Cervidae
Species : Cervus unicolor
Shoulder Height : Males up to
Tail Length : Males up to 28 cm
Weight : Males up to 260 kg
Females are considerably smaller.
The Sambar or Rusa deer
once occurred in a variety of habitats but is now confined mainly to
primary and mature secondary forests due to hunting pressure. Crepuscular
(i.e. active at morning and dusk) and nocturnal in habit, they are most
easily spotted at the forest margins where they feed on young grass shoots.
They frequent natural salt licks, particularly adult males who need minerals
to promote growth of their antlers.
Male Sambar are among the largest of Southeast Asia's deer, with a head-body
length of up to 2 metres and weighing up to 260 kg. The fur is brown to
grey-brown, the tail dark and the underside of the tail and rump area
whitish. The antlers of the male usually have three tines (points). In
addition to grass shoots they feed on vines and fallen fruits. Herds are
small with up to 4 individuals, and a single fawn is born after a gestation
period of 8 months.
The species ranges from India, Sri Lanka and Nepal through Burma, southern
China and Indochina, to Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines.
Wild Sambar were hunted to extinction in Singapore in the last century,
however in recent years a feral population has become established in the
central forests, perhaps descended from escapees from Singapore Zoo.
Fig 1 : Impressive looking male with large
antlers. Khao Yai National Park, Thailand.
Fig 2 : Female from Danum Valley, Sabah, Borneo.
Fig 3 : A mother and her calf feeding on lush grass. Danum Valley,
Fig 4 : At night, shy Sambar emerge from the forest to
feed in grassy clearings. Danum Valley, Sabah, Borneo.
Fig 5 : This male has recently shed his antlers : this is a natural
event which occurs every few years. Khao Yai National Park,
Fig 6 : Sambar tracks at Khao Yai National Park, Thailand.
References : M1, M2, M3