Family : BUFONIDAE
Species : Duttaphrynus melanostictus
Size (snout to vent) :
Females 11.5 cm, males 8.5 cm.
One of the commonest of
true toads in Southeast Asia, it occurs in a variety of habitats in both
rural and urban areas.
the tadpoles are small in size and black ventrally.
Middle : the ventral side is pale.
Bottom : close-up of the mouthparts
At night it can easily be
found on grass lawns, and on paths and roads. Concretised drains are also a
favoured habitat, and the species can withstand brackish water.
There is considerable
colour variation, but the species is easily identified by the presence of
pronounced paratoid glands (a raised ridge behind the eye) and the lines of
warts along the back and sides.
It ranges from Sri Lanka
to Southern China, and down through Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore to
western Indonesia and the island of Borneo.
Fig 1 : Brightly coloured specimen at Siem Reap, Cambodia.
Fig 2 : Specimen amongst dry leaf litter at Bukit Timah, Singapore.
Fig 3 : Specimen from freshwater swamp habitat, Sedili Besar, Johor,
Fig 4 : Pale grey specimen at Sungei Buloh, Singapore.
Fig 5 : Olive green specimen, Singapore.
References : H2, H3