Family : BUFONIDAE
Species : Duttaphrynus melanostictus
Size (snout to vent) :
Females 11.5 cm, males 8.5 cm.
One of the commonest of
true toads in Southeast Asia, it occurs in a variety of habitats in both
rural and urban areas.
the tadpoles are small in size and black ventrally.
Middle : the ventral side is pale.
Bottom : close-up of the mouthparts
At night it can easily be
found on grass lawns, and on paths and roads. Concretised drains are also a
favoured habitat, and the species can withstand brackish water.
There is considerable
colour variation, but the species is easily identified by the presence of
pronounced paratoid glands (a raised ridge behind the eye) and the lines of
warts along the back and sides.
This is a widespread species. As a native it occurs in the Indian
subcontinent (including parts of Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka),
southern China (including Hong Kong, Taiwan) throughout all countries of
mainland Southeast Asia, and offshore to the islands of Sumatra, Borneo and
Java. The species has been introduced to many islands further east including
at least Bali, and various localities in Sulawesi, Timor-Leste and New
Fig 1 : Brightly coloured specimen at Siem Reap, Cambodia.
Fig 2 : Specimen amongst dry leaf litter at Bukit Timah, Singapore.
Fig 3 : Specimen from freshwater swamp habitat, Sedili Besar, Johor,
Fig 4 : Pale grey specimen at Sungei Buloh, Singapore.
Fig 5 : Olive green specimen, Singapore.
References : H2, H3