Order : RODENTIA
Family : Hystricidae
Species : Hystrix brachyura
Head-Body Length : Up to
Tail Length : Up to 11 cm
The Malayan Porcupine, or East Asian Porcupine, is
one of the largest of Southeast Asia's seven species of porcupine. It
occurs in a wide range of habitats including primary and secondary forest,
cultivated areas and plantations. The species appears to be almost
It has a varied diet of fallen fruit, roots, tubers and bark, and may
sometimes scavenge for food scraps at the edge of villages. They have
large incisors and powerful jaws used for crushing seeds and nuts. They
are also known to gnaw on bones, and to take bones back to their burrows.
They inhabit large burrows which are excavated in suitable soils with
their powerful front feet and long claws. These burrows can form extensive
warrens, and may be used for many generations.
Family bonds appear strong : it is common to see groups of 3 or 4
individuals foraging together at night. Up to 10 individuals may live in a
The front half of the body is dark brown to near black. The rear half is
equipped with long, sharp quills which are banded black and white, or dark
brown and white. Typically the longer quills are predominantly white, with
a dark band in the middle. Long, thick hairs on the nape may be erected
into a crest. The tail is relatively short, with thick, hollow quills
which can be rattled when the animal feels threatened.
The species is probably only predated by large cats, such as Leopards,
however it must be a hungry predator that attempts to kill a Malayan
Porcupine : when threatened these animals will charge backwards into their
attacker, spines raised.
Some authorities divide Hystrix brachyura into two species, with
those north of the Isthmus of Kra (i.e. the narrowest part of southern
Thailand) being referred to as H. hodgsoni.
The Malayan Porcupine occurs in parts of India, Nepal, Bangladesh and
southern China. Within Southeast Asia it is widespread on the mainland,
occurring in Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Peninsular Malaysia
and Singapore. It also occurs on the islands of Borneo and Sumatra.
Fig 1 : Pair of Malayan Porcupine navigating the forest at night - the front
animal is probably the male, based on slightly larger size. Found at
Sungai Bantang, near Endau-Rompin National Park, Johor, Peninsular Malaysia.
Fig 2 : Rear view of another porcupine from Sungai Bantang area.
Fig 3 : Consuming a food scrap found amongst the leaf litter of young
Fig 4 : The thick head and bulbous snout of this specimen suggests it may be
an adult male. Note the long hairs on the forehead and nape which suggest a
well-developed crest in this individual.
Fig 5 : This specimen is perhaps a juvenile, based on its slimmer body form
and less robust head.
Note : Figs 3 to 5 are of a population found in Singapore which appear to be
more brown in colour than is usual for the species. Lekagul (1977)
reiterates that colour varies individually in porcupines.
References : M2, M3, M5