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Text and photos by Nick Baker, unless otherwise credited.
Copyright ゥ Ecology Asia 2023



Unidentified Toad

Fig 1

Fig 2















Species : 'Bufo sp.'
Size (snout to vent) :  estimated 7-8 cm

The images presented here are of a species of toad from Johor, Peninsular Malaysia found in December 2006. Comparison of these images with other bufonids from Peninsular Malaysia, particularly those from the genera Duttaphrynus and Ingerophrynus, suggests this may tentatively be an undescribed species.

The ridges on top of the head and the shape of the paratoid gland bear some similarity with those of the Four-ridged Toad Ingerophrynus quadriporcatus, however the robust form and general body shape appear different to I. quadriporcatus, the size is somewhat larger, and the mottled flanks and pale underside are significantly different.

Tentatively, this toad may be part of the Bufo biporcatus/divergens species group, based on the prominent ridges on the head and the elongated paratoid gland.

The most noticeable difference between this toad and I. quadriporcatus, is its call. The call of the latter has an easily recognisable call which comprises a repeated, dual-syllabic croaking (with the second syllable at a lower frequency than the first), whilst the call of the unidentified toad was monotonous (and the sum effect of many toads calling at the same time produced a sound which, from a distance, was rather like the droning of a swarm of bees or flies).

In November 2012, Dr. Leong Tzi Ming encountered a similar toad from Rompin, Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia and recorded a videograph of a single toad calling.
Play video

Both encounters with this potentially undescribed species were in areas of waterlogged, flooded lowland forest during the north-east monsoon (which occurs between November and January).

Fig 1 : Example from Johor, Peninsular Malaysia, at the margin of a shallow, temporary pool in lowland forest (and close to the edge of extensive freshwater swamp forest).

Fig 2 : Mating pair in amplexus. 

Thanks to Leong Tzi Ming for assistance.