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Text and photos by Nick Baker, unless credited to others.
Copyright ゥ Ecology Asia 2024







Nusa Tenggara Wart Frog

Fig 1

Fig 2

Fig 3

Fig 4

Fig 5

Fig 6

Species : Limnonectes kadarsani
Size (snout to vent) :
Female 10.7 cm, Male 12.0 cm

The Nusa Tenggara Wart Frog Limnonectes kadarsani, is a large species of dicroglossid or fanged frog from central Indonesia.

(Fanged frogs are so called as they possess a pair of sharply pointed bony projections, or odontoid processes, at the front of the lower jaw, pointing upwards and backwards into the mouth.)

L. kadarsani occurs around fast-flowing streams passing through primary or partly disturbed secondary forest. It seems to avoid open habitats.

Featured here are images of 5 frogs found on the same night along a 50-metre stretch of a clear stream near Potowangka, western Flores, at around 300 metres elevation. The frogs are arranged in decreasing size.

The huge adult male in Figure 1 is easily identifiable as L. kadarsani. : it possesses smooth brown skin, fully webbed hind toes, and a wide head with rounded snout.

Given that there is only one other dicroglossid frog listed as occurring on the island of Flores, namely the smaller L. dammermani, the other four specimens may possibly be L. kadarsani too, comprising females, sub-adults and juveniles, though which is which is hard to ascertain from photos alone.

The smallest specimen in Figure 6 measures just 2 cm long and possesses broken rows of elongated tubercles on the dorsum, which might accord with the identifying features of a juvenile L. kadarsani, as described by Iskandar et al (1996).

This species occurs in a groups of islands in Nusa Tenggara, central Indonesia which includes, from west to east, Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Adonara and Lembata.

Fig 1 : Adult male, estimated to be around 11-12 cm in length, in typically alert resting posture with its powerful rear legs tensed and ready to leap.

Fig 2 : Lowland stream through secondary forest at Potowangka, western Flores.

Fig 3 : Specimen of around 9 cm, with sparse dark blotches.

Fig 4 : Sub-adult, measuring around 6 cm with less smooth skin and dark blotches.

Fig 5 : Mottled specimen of around 4 cm.

Fig 6 : Juvenile, measuring 2 cm, with rows of elongated, reddish tubercles.

All images from Potowangka, western Flores, Indonesia at around 300 metres elevation.

References :

Iskandar, D. T., Boeadi, and Sancoyo, M. (1996). ''Limnonectes kadarsani (Amphibia: Anura: Ranidae), a new frog from the Nusa Tenggara Islands.'' The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 44(1), 21-28.

Thanks to Leong Tzi Ming for assistance.