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Text and photos by Nick Baker, unless credited to others.
Copyright ゥ Ecology Asia 2024



Brown Bullfrog

Fig 1























Species : Kaloula baleata
Size (snout to vent) :  Female 6.5 cm, male 6.0 cm

The Brown Bullfrog (or Javanese Bullfrog) is a secretive species which generally lies concealed amongst terrestrial leaf litter in areas of lowland primary forest. It will emerge after heavy rain to congregate around shallow water bodies to breed, sometimes in great numbers. In disturbed areas of secondary forest it may be found in roadside ditches.

Despite its round body shape it is able to climb tree trunks with rough bark, and has been found at eye-level and above.

Colouration appears to be variable but is generally dark brown with lighter patches of pale grey to orange brown. The throat is speckled with white.

The body is plump, the limbs short and thick, and the head short and rounded. The eyes are of medium size : between the eye and the forelimb is a straight fold of skin.

The fingers, which are usually held in a splayed position, are unwebbed and bear relatively large concave adhesive pads. The toes are webbed.

This species is widespread and occurs in at least southern Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Java, parts of Borneo, parts of eastern Indonesia (for example, Flores Island), Sulawesi and the Philippines. Outside the region it is reported from parts of eastern India.

Fig 1 : Example in a roadside ditch adjacent to lowland primary forest at Johor, Peninsular Malaysia.

References : H4